Phases of Colonialism in Sub-Continent Experience
– Definition of Colonialism:
Colonialism may be defined, literally, as the control of a nation over a dependent State, Continent, Country or people. It may be an unintentional control or an intentional one.
Colonialism may be the making or the breaking of a colony of one territory by an influential group from another territory. It is often said to be due to some reasons. Sometimes an external power might come with a positive mind-set and with time fall into having great control over the state, keeping in view their own power and their valor as it gets said by George Orwell: “Power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely.” This statement falls true when the term “Colonialism” gets talked about. The more power of its own, a state senses, the more corruption it falls into.
– Colonialism often gets divided into two types:
1. Settler Colonialism
2. Exploitation Colonialism
1. Settler Colonialism:
As the name implies, Settler colonialism is the type of colonialism in which people from various places enter a territory and settle there, inhabiting the areas which are vacant. It is not that they do not get proper attention or value, they get given a prominent place in the society they have moved into and sooner they start to blend into all that the society offers and presents to them. It is said about this genre of colonialism that it lasts longer. We cannot go on thinking of it as a colonialism that can somehow come to an end. The historian of race and settler colonialism Patrick Wolfe writes that “Settler colonialism destroys to replace.” Once settler colonialism gets done, it cannot be brought to an end.
2. Exploitation Colonialism:
As the word delineates, Exploitation Colonialism is the national economic policy of conquering a country to exploit its natural resources and its native population. The practice of exploitation colonialism contrasts with settler colonialism. In this, an external state, specifically a state which holds waters, come up for exploitation and destruction of ways and norms, not keeping in mind the results of their moves. It is a distinct form of imperialism in which a colonizing nation exerts direct controls over a colonized state by military, economic, and political means.
– People of the Sub-Continent:
The people of the sub-continent lived in glee and freedom. It is not that they did not have problems, they did have them but not as much as then when they got under the control of external forces which not only ruled them but also deprived them of their rights and all that they once had.
– Beginning of the arrival of the Britishers:
Once the Spanish Armada (a great navy) had fully been ended, Britishers started to plan how to conquer India. They wanted control on the entire sub-continent.
– East India Company and The Spice Trade:
The Europeans started trading. Trade got started and it became obvious that sooner or later will they be able to take over India. Trade turned out to be the first step of the Europeans towards conquering the Sub-Continent. It was carried between the Sub-Continent and the Roman Sailors who reached the sub-continent through the Red Sea and the Arabian Sea. The “Spice Trade” was one of the types of the trade in the World’s economy and was the main catalyst for the period of European exploration. East India Company, as the company of Merchants of London trading in East India, was founded in 1600 and gained grounds in 1612 when Mughal Emperor Jahangir allowed them to establish a factory in the ports of Surat.
– Battle of Plassey:
This battle, which was fought under Robert Clove, established company rule in Bengal which later expanded in many parts of the sub-continent. By the 18th Century, East India Company had expanded well and it had much influence on people.
– Allying of Britishers with Nawabs:
The Britishers adopted the policy of amalgamating themselves with the prominent people of the Sub-continent. It was said by them that they will provide security of all kinds against the usurpers and the rebels. The Nawabs often gave then concessions for the security that they provided to them. It was a tactic of the Britishers. As it gets said that when you want to destroy a state or its natives, firstly get mixed up with them, provide pleasures to them and then ruin them. The Britishers did the same. This was when the grounds of the Britishers started to become firm in the sub-continent and the rulers of the sub-continent began losing grounds.
– The strength of the Britishers:
Owing to all the tactics of the Britishers and their role in breaking the sub-continent and conquering it, their strength increased and their reign did spread like a wildfire. The rulers of the sub-continent lost the values they had and the power started to be of the Britishers.
– The deterioration of the people:
The Britishers when got hold of all that they wanted to, they started maltreating the people of the sub-continent. It was then that the wreckage of the Hindus and Muslims had started. They already were not in good terms with each other but the arrival of a third party and obviously an external power whose sole purpose was to ward the governance of the rulers off and set up flags and rule of their own so that in one way or another they could rule an area greater than their own. Their goal was not alone to take over Sub-Continent but also to clear up the minds of people filling them with the thoughts of their own. Women and children were treated badly, lesser jobs were given to them and they were, all in all, enslaved, not being allowed to live the way their hearts wanted to. Things which were worth-telling, were not told and we hidden. Only the things which were of minor importance were told to people. The glory of the people was murdered, brutally and the Britishers had nothing but power to spread, in one way or another.