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A host of advantages as listed below form part of the reason why few serious farmers in the country invest in Super-Intensive production systems despite its comparatively high capital cost.

*1.* *Tremendous Water Savings:* Through water treatment and reuse, recirculation system use a fraction of the water required by ponds to produce similar yields. For example; approximately 1 million gallons of water per acre are required to fill a pond an equivalent volume is required to compensate for the evaporation and seepage during the year. Assuming an annual pond yield of 2500kg(2.5tons) of fish per acre, approximately 200 gallons of water is required per kilogram of fish production.
Compare this to a Super-Intensive system in Kaduna that produces 4.2 tonnes using 10,000liters of water that boils down to about half a gallon of water used to raise each kilogram of fish.

*2.* *Market Proximity:* The number one question any serious entrepreneur would ask is: ‘How & where do I market my fish?’ Marketing of *Clarias* in Nigeria poses no problem at all as the demand is colossal.
The challenge facing farmers in Nigeria especially people located are distant places to market is transportation. This alone can lessen your sales price by as much as *N* 80.00 per kilogram weight of fish because your buyers will factor in their traveling expenses to your farm.
Since recirculating systems usually use tanks or cinder blocks/concrete for production, substantially less land is required and as such there is flexibility with location farmers can locate their production units close to their target markets!

*3.* *Easy Grading:* One of the two major keys to success in catfish farming is *Grading*; this is the sorting of the fishes into size classes/groups at specified periods to prevent cannibalism by the *Shooters* in growing populations.
Most pond farmers are wary of this exercise and pay dearly for it during harvest,during which a yield of 86 fishes can come from a pond stocked with 3,500 fingerlings.
Losses can be as staggering as *90%*. But with the clear water of the intensive system with no need for huge nets to drag inside mud and good drainage system, the farmer is prompt to grade his fishes.

*4.* *No Aggression and Hierarchies:* Most animals when they are few,like to create hierarchies and exhibit dominance and aggressive behavior leading to stunted growth of the oppressed generality to the advantages of a few bullies. There is no such display in a crowded intensive unit.

*5.* *Food Equity:* Regular feeding of fishes at designated spots in stagnant ponds usually leads to dominance by a few bigger individuals in the population leading to unequal growth.
Food is evenly distributed by the water current in a Super-intensive system leaving no room for ranking.

*6.* *Growth Equity:* Unequal growth pattern is a major problem in pond fish production. The secretion of a chemical called *Pheromones* largely influences growth in all fishes. This material is a survival strategy as far as a fish is concerned because once secreted by a fish it will inhibit the growth of other members of the population.

With everyone secreting pheromones, we will surely have a problem of growth in a stagnant pond unless the water is partly changed as in Raceways, which reduces the concentration of the chemical.
But with the recycling system, the chemicals are absorbed by purifiers in the filter media chambers leading to much more rapid growth of the fish despite the high stocking density.

*7.* *Protection from Predators:* It’s bye bye to so many potential enemies-Birds like *Egrets*,*Kingfisher*,*Herons*,*Bushducks*, also *Cats* and *Snakes*, *Frogs* and *Alligators*,*Predatory* fishes too are not a concern anymore because you are not using the stream water. Above all fishes are protected from the *Dragon fly larvae*, which are the most ferocious enemy of catfish fry, fingerlings, post fingerlings and juveniles.

*8.* *Adequate Security:* Since most recycling systems are located within a fenced compound or inside disused warehouses they are protected from the proby eyes of human intruder or neighbors.
Assuming a pond farmer is so meticulous and gets his fish to table size, this factor is always a recurring decimal during 2nd or 3rd harvest thereby bringing discouragement to the farmer.(But then, who would not expect that in a neighborhood where the generality barely get 3 square meals a day).

*9.* *Higher Stocking Rates:* Graduating from the extensive two fishes per square meter open pond to the Raceways 10-50 fishes per square meter, the farmer is pleased to stock as much as 200-350 fishes per square meters.

*10.* *Environmental Control:* Catfishes are nocturnal fishes preferring to hide during daylight hence reducing their food intake for as much as 1-2hours everyday.

*11.* *Water Quality Control:* The ‘culprit’ here is the green water caused by algae in open pond. During the day algae photosynthesize by consuming the carbon dioxide produced by the fish and release oxygen, which the fishes will breath in. But at night the same algae switch to respiration and now consume oxygen leaving the fishes to gasp for air at night when they should be actively eating.
You can see why pond farmers seldom get fishes weighing 1kg in 8months.

*12.* *Higher Feed Conversion:* 60% of the feed used in open ponds is wasted at pond bottom largely unavailable to fish. But only 15% is wasted in a recirculating system operation.

*13.* *Less Labour:* Only 2 workers with a manager are needed to run a 5ton facility, you will need almost 8 for an open pond system with almost 2 acres to trek through several times a day, grasses to cut, dykes to maintain and a security watch plus casual laborers to drag the pond during grading and harvesting pond farming is labour intensive.

Posted : 03/07/2022 1:55 pm
Posts: 26
Trusted Member

An Important Factors to look into for Intending Fish Farmers.

Few Differences between Earthpond and Tarpaulins Fish Pond.

1. Tarpaulin Ponds is movable while Earthpond is not Movable.

2) Take not that Tarpaulin Ponds is a Temporary Pond while Earthpond is a Permanent Pond. Once they start to lose it and move it elsewhere, there may be Issues, compared to Earthpond.

3. Sorting of Fishes is easy in Tarpaulins, compared to Earthpond. In Earthpond, to sort Fishes is a little bit cumbersome. Except you involved two three Workers. In Tarpaulin Ponds, only one worker will do it.

4) Fish Grows faster in Earthpond, compared to Tarpaulin. In Earthpond, Fishes has access to seen and unseen organisms which aid there Growth. In Tarpaulins , The Fish only deepened on the food given to them.

5) on Issue of Food Wastage, it is beneficial to Earthpond because where there is any food wastages, it fertilized the Ponds, aid the Growth of Algaes and Fungi which are beneficial to Fishes. In Tarpaulin Pond , Food Wastage is dangerous to the Growth of Fishes because the water gets polluted instantly.

6. The uses of Fertilizer is only applicable and Idile for Earthpond. If you apply it to Tarpaulin, there maybe trouble for your Fishes. At Ola Integrated Farm, we have both Earthpond , Concrete Ponds and Tarpaulins

7. Earthpond Fishes is more natural than Tarpaulin Ponds Catfish's. This is because the Fishes in Earthpond has contact with the Land, God Almighty created. This is evidence in their tastes when you compare them.

8. On the case of Theft, stealing is easier and Faster in Tarpaulin Fish Pond, compared to Earthpond. In Tarpaulin fish Pond, amateurs can steal Fish. In Earthpond, only expert steal the Fishes therein.

9. Interms of Knowing the Mortality rate of your Fishes, Tarpaulin Pond takes the Leads here. It's easier, compared to Earthpond. In Earthpond, once a Fish dies, you can't easily detect, compared to Tarpaulin Ponds.

10. in overall management. Earthpond is the best, it does not leak when it is properly Constructed. Even after a decade. You cant use a Tarpaulin Ponds for Ten years without having any issue. It's absolutely impossible. but you can use an Earthpond for decades without an issue.

11) Artificial foods for fish is more ideal, effective in Earthpond, compared to Tarpaulin Ponds. Thus, artificial foods , maggots, GNLD Products, etc is effective in Earthpond but may be dangerous in Tarpaulin Pond if not properly manage. At Ola Integrated Services, we only apply artificial foods to our Earth Ponds.

12)Harvesting is easier in Tarpaulin compared to Earthpond. Under minutes, harvesting can be done in Tarpaulin Pond, compared to Earthpond.

13) running Cost of Tarpaulins is more expensive than Earthpond. Once you have a Flow through system in Earthpond, you don't need to pump water again till you harvest. But in Tarpaulin Pond, A farmer who doesn't change the water often is gunning for a Money suicide for it's buiness.

14) For Tilapia. farmers, you will see that 95 of them go for Earthponds. Why ? Because it's beneficial, ideal, and reasonable than Tarpaulin

15) Earthpond is good for Large Scale Fish Farming while small scale Fish Farmers should endeavor to go for Tarpaulin, maybe farmer who wants to start with less than 1,000 Fishes. Inorder words, Expert, Large Scale and Medium scale Farmers go for Earthponds.

16) Honorable Farmer, if you see a Fish of 2kg and Above, just know that 95 percent of it is a product of Earthponds. Above All, In terms of running cost, management practice, EARTHPOND IS THE BEST FOR FISH FARMING IN NIGERIA.

Posted : 25/07/2022 8:50 am
Posts: 26
Trusted Member

A fish pond is defined as a water body which has an outlet and an inlet in order to manage the pond when it comes to draining,flushing and harvesting. If a pond does not have those features,it is not a fish pond in my opinion. In any case, a fish pond is not just a hole in the ground.

Building a pond and the choice of materials depends on many factors:
1. Composition of the soil
2. Size of the land
3. Personal preference
4. Capacity of the farm
5. Financial capacity 


If the soil holds water, which occurs when the soil consists of a minimum of 30% of clay, you have the possibility of constructing an earthen pond. It is important that the dykes of the pond are well constructed and well compacted; they should not contain any stones or other materials, because they make the dyke permeable and weak. Usually the dyke of a pond have a slope of 30-40 degree and a depth of 1.5m. The water level should be 1.2m which provides for a freeboard of 0.3m. Small ponds of 100-300 m² can be excavated manually, but bigger ponds require machines(e.g excavator,bulldozer,swamp buggy e.t.c) for excavating and compacting.
The top soil should not be mixed with the lower soil layers and should be placed back on the dykes and roads. Grass(e.g Bahama grass) should be planted on top of the dykes in order to avoid erosion.
Constructing an earthen pond should be done by experienced people. A surveyor has to be involved in order to get the level correct. An earthen pond is, as I stated in my first write up , definitely not just a hole in the ground. My write up is not meant to be a manual for constructing an earthen pond, but it offers you an idea of the requirements for such a construction.
Many fish farmers use bags filled with soil to make dykes; I do not believe this is a durable solution. The bags certainly do not seal the dyke but they avoid erosion and reduce the seepage.

*Bahama or Stubborn grass planted on the dyke of earthen ponds to hold the soil strong and prevent the pond from gully erosion(washing the top soil into the pond)*

Posted : 25/07/2022 7:39 pm
Posts: 26
Trusted Member

Earthen ponds are usually operated extensively. The stock of fish varies from 5 to 20 pieces per m². Earthen ponds need a lot of space and a lot of water due to evaporation and seepage. During the dry season evaporation can go up to 2cm per day, which means 20m3 of water has to be added daily into a 1000 m² pond to keep the water level constant. Because in an earthen pond the soil and the water interact, the catfish really like this kind of pond. Their nick name is mud fish for a reason; they especially like the bottom of the pond. The only challenge of an earthen pond can be harvesting the fish but if you have a good heavy duty water pump and a drag nets, you are good to go. If the bottom of the pond is very muddy, the pond cannot be drained completely. Any fish left, will seriously interfere with the next stock of post fingerlings or juveniles. The soil can be disinfected with hydrated lime after every drain or harvest and dried during the dry season. After some years, you will have to take out the excessive sludge. This sludge is perfect for improving the quality of any soil for farming crops, because it increases the organic matter in the soil.

*Benefits of Earthen Pond over Different Sorts of Ponds😇🤴*
1. It is just like the pure habit of fishes.
2. Fishes develop higher in an earthen pond than each different sort of pond.
3. Upkeep value is cheaper.
4. It may well help completely different sorts of feed.
5. It has pure capability to regulate air pollution.
6. You don’t need an electrical aerator to spice up the oxygen stage.
7. It requires degrees value of construction.
8. It permits fishes to develop quicker.
9. It permits simple water administration.


If you are interested in building a natural pond, but the soil does not hold water, you can dig a pond in the same shape as an earthen pond and put a plastic lining. For a plastic lined pond, it is important that the surface of the soil is smooth and does not contain any sharp object which can puncture the lining. Also, the lining should be 1mm thick and UV-resistant. UV-resistant means that sunlight doesn’t spoil the lining and eventually cause it to crack after some time. The standard UV-resistant lining is not available in Nigeria, so it has to be imported. If the pond is big, the lining will be delivered in pieces and will have to be welded together. This is a job for a specialist with a special welding machine. If the welding is not carried out well, after some months or years the lining will just fall apart due to the detrimental effects of the wind and other weather conditions.


If you want a natural looking pond, but the soil is not suitable and plastic lining is not available, you still have another alternative which is a stone pitched pond. In my opinion, stone pitching should only be carried out in such a way that the soil is well stabilized and the erosion will not be a factor, otherwise it will undermine the stone pitching after some period of time. Stone pitched walls should be 12cm thick and only be built by experienced masons in this field of expertise. Stone pitched ponds are not completely sealed, but that is not a problem because flushing and adding water is part of the water management anyway. The slope of the dykes is the same as for earthen and plastic liner ponds, which is 30-45 degrees.

Posted : 25/07/2022 7:46 pm
Posts: 105
Estimable Member Admin
Topic starter


A cold-blooded animal or ectotherm, like all fish are, does not have an internal mechanism to regulate body temperature. Instead, it relies on solar energy captured by the environment. Catfish will always have a body temperature which is equal to the ambient water temperature. The internal activity of the fish, called its metabolism, increases with increasing water temperature, but it has an optical range. For the African catfish or African sharptooth catfish, the optimal body temperature varies between 25 and 30 degree Celsius.
So, cold-blooded means that a fish is not internally generating energy to regulate its body temperature. Therefore, it requires far less energy than warm-blooded animals or endothermic. Warm-blooded animals need frequent meals on a daily basis to keep the body temperature constant, whereas cold-blooded animals can skip meals for days and even for weeks without any negative health impact.
At Ufezi Agro-Fishery Enterprise, we always take into consideration the temperature of the water and the activity of the fish👌.

But in 2015,scientists discovered the first fully warm-blooded fish and the Moonfish(Opah) happens to be a full warm-blooded fish.

Posted : 07/01/2023 10:07 am
Posts: 0
New Member


Removal from water and handling of live fish is only carried out when absolutely necessary. If fish are handled, adequate support should be given to the body (live fish must never be held by the operculum or tail only).
Times must be reduced when the air temperature is particularly high or low. In all cases, fish skin must be kept wet during handling.
Where pumps, pipes and grading equipment are used, these are designed for the purpose and should not injure or unnecessarily stress fish. When hand nets and containers are used, they are:
• Of a suitable size (physical and mesh size).
• Designed to minimise the occurrence of physical damage
• Kept clean, disinfected and in good repair
• Smooth surfaced containers
"Always gives you satisfied service and make fish 🐟 farming easy ".

Posted : 23/01/2023 8:59 am
Posts: 0
New Member

• Can be done on monthly basis
• Helps to determine the average body weight of the fish 🐟
• Changing of feed from one type to another will be known
• Determine the growth rate per day as Specific Growth Rate (SGR)
• usually Feed Conversation Rate (FCR )can also be monitored
• It is done in the morning or when temperatures are low to avoid stressing fish
• 5% of the total population is used for better results.
• Digital scale
• Sampling buckets 🪣
• Scoop/cast or harvesting net
Avoid saying my fish 🐟 are 3months what feed type can I use rather say for 500g fish what type of feed can I use. Fish grow differently based on different pond management practices.
"Always gives you satisfied service and make fish 🐟 farming easy ".

Posted : 23/01/2023 9:06 am
Posts: 0
New Member

*How to keep borehole clean?* The borehole drilled on your land should always be located far away from waste disposal areas and soakaways.keep the environment where your borehole is situated, as clean as possible.

Test the quality of the borehole water every two years for chemical content and at least once a year for coliforms, which are bacteria of faecal origin which indicates the presence of other pathogenic bacteria.

Also clean your water reservoir at least four times a year to avoid growth of unwanted bacteria and algae and remove silt deposits from the bottom of the reservoir. If you are willing and obedient you will enjoy the benefits of fish farming.

Always give you satisfied service and make fish 🐟 farming easy. 

Posted : 12/02/2023 8:02 am
Posts: 0
New Member


*The definition of catfish can mean different things to different people.*
*Let us take a look at the variety of fish bearing that name:*

*1.* The European variety or “wels” Silurus glanis is popular in central Europe for eating or sports.

*2.* The channel catfish- ictalurus puctatus, the undisputed king of farmed fish in America and increasingly favored in sports.

*3.* A host of ORNAMENTAL FISH, like freshwater Upside down,Glass,Network and Ocellifer catfish including some marine species are also regarded as catfish.

*4.* The African mud or (sharp tooth) catfish- Clarias gariepinus, now genetically worked on and called Dutch Clarias have been commercially grown in countries such as Holland and now the main object of culture in Africa especially in Nigeria, though some other related species like the Aluminum catfish(Chriscthys nigrodigitatus) and Heterobranchus bidorsalis are also grown to some extent but have enjoyed less popularity, because technological feats have not been performed on them as much as Clarias gariepinus.

Posted : 12/02/2023 9:38 am
Posts: 0
New Member


I believe a *green water environment* is good for growing catfish in their *first growth stages* because of the following reasons:

1.* The algae in the water consumes the *waste of the fish* and reduce the *flushing rate* without you having to deal with *bad smelling water.*

2.* The catfish feel *secure* because *birds* or other *predators* cannot spot them easily.

3.* It creates a favorable environment in which *good bacteria* have an advantage over the *pathogenic ones.*

4.* It creates a *flora of organisms(natural food)* which are beneficial to the growth of catfish fry.

5.* Green algae produce oxygen during the day but during the night they consume it and the oxygen level reduces.

So, catfish need to have developed the *labyrinth organ* in order to breath oxygen from the air! I believe *pathogenic organisms* relying on oxygen,such as *Aeromonas* species, causing *fin rot* and elimination of the barbels, and *Flexibacter columnaris*, also called *saddleback disease*, are at a disadvantage in green water because they cannot *flourish* during the night.

6.* The catfish are usually *healthy* and don’t suffer from *bacteria diseases* as much as in a *clear water environment.*

7.* *Sick fish* can even get over their *illness* without any treatment.

Posted : 19/02/2023 5:20 pm
Posts: 0
New Member


Brood stock can be kept in an indoor or outdoor pond, but should not be exposed to too much sunlight and the water temperature should be preferably between 25 and 27 degree Celsius.

The density of the number of brood stock per m², can cause problems too. Freshly stocked premature brood stock in low densities will always fight, which causes a lot of problems, such as infections and mortality. Fighting cannot always be avoided though.

Whenever you buy catfish brood stock from a fish farm,add 2kg/m³(1000liters of water) of salt to the water in order to avoid infections and improve the healing of the skin after fighting.

The water quality should be perfect, with ammonium levels of less than 5mg/l and a pH between 6.5 and 8.0. Females and males should be mixed together in on one pond. Catfish produce pheromones which stimulate the development of the gonads in both sexes. Stock the brood stock in several ponds instead of putting them all in one; don’t put all the eggs in one basket!

Also, it is wise to grow a group of premature catfish to maturity for the next generation of brood stock at the same time. When the females are used, they should be put in a different pond to recover and grow another set of eggs. Usually after three to four months, you can select ripened females again for another spawning.

A question many breeders ask, is: “How much brood stock do I need to get a certain quantity of fingerlings/production?” The answer depends on so many factors, but the most important one is the success rate of the spawning.

Hatcheries which perform very badly, can use up to 200 eggs to grow 1 catfish juvenile. Others are more efficient and use only 5 eggs to grow 1 juvenile. The fecundity of catfish females is very high compared to species like Tilapia.

The body weight of a female consist of 5 to 15% egg mass and 1g of eggs means up to 500 pieces.

For example, a 4kg female contains between 200 and 600g of eggs, which is equivalent to 100,000 to 300,000 pieces. If the spawning and rearing procedures are carried out properly, this results in 20,000 to 60,000 fingerlings/juveniles. The female can be used at least two times a year.

So, one good female can yield up to 100,000 fingerlings/juveniles a year!
The sperm of the male varies a lot in quality and it cannot be accessed otherwise than opening the belly. Good testes look milky and contain a lot of fluid, which looks milky too. Good testes can contain up to 10ml of sperm and 0.5ml of sperm can fertilize at least 100g of eggs.

The concentration of good sperm can be up to millions of sperm cells per ml. Males, kept for three years or more, will have a reduced sperm quality. The testes become spongy and the sperm becomes very thick and less fertile. Females can be kept much longer, if taken good care of.

When females become older and bigger, they will give more and bigger eggs and the quality usually improves, especially when they are used for stripping the eggs during this period.
If you are serious about starting a brood stock programme and keep good records of brood stocks and their performances, you cannot do without a microchip tagging system to identify your males and females.

To improve a strain by keeping a large number of brood stocks in your ponds, selecting them on performances by following the offspring in a professional way, is almost impossible at farm level and will cost a fortune.

To get results from improving brood stock and offspring, will take a couple of years and improvements of 5% are great achievements for a researcher, but not really for the breeder. Small differences at farm level will not be spotted without serious record keeping. Improvement of brood stocks should be an assignment for institutes or big feed companies e.g The Aller Aqua Fish Research centre in Denmark 🇩🇰

Posted : 03/03/2023 1:14 pm

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